Berlin Experiences founder, Matt, recently started contributing to the Atlas Obscura – here’s an interesting look at Berlin’s Zentralfriedhof Friedrichsfelde, also known as the Memorial to the Socialists:
“Established in 1881, the Zentralfriedhof Friedrichsfelde was Berlin’s first non-denominational municipal graveyard – a pauper’s cemetery that would later become the final resting place for many of Germany’s prominent Socialists, Communists and anti-Fascist fighters.”
Zentralfriedhof Freidrichsfelde April 23rd, 2017berlinexperiences.com
Berlin has museum culture at its heart. Radiating from an entire island in the centre of the city – complete with an ensemble of museums – chronicling six thousand years of human history.
A vital constituent in the European narrative, it is not hard to argue the case that Berlin in its entirety is in-fact one huge open-air museum. Its streets serving as corridors leading to the monuments and building of its permanent collection – the story continuing behind the many doors waiting to be opened.
With more than 170 fascinating museums, covering everything from classical antiquities to the history of hemp, the choice in Berlin is overwhelming.
To help out we’ve highlighted ten Berlin museums that remain a must see for anyone visiting the city.
The Alte Nationalgalerie (Old National Gallery) is just one of five state museums huddled on Berlin’s UNESCO world heritage listed Museum Island. It was founded in 1861, after banker Johann Heinrich Wagener donated over two hundred artworks. Now spread over three floors, the museum boasts one of the largest collections of 19th century European art in Germany to survive the Nazi regime – including works from German romantic painter Caspar David Friedrich (see image above). It also houses Romantic and Modernist works, as well as being the first museum in the world to purchase Impressionist art – keep a lookout for the odd Monet and Manet painting, and works by Max Liebermann, a pioneer of German impressionism.
Don’t miss:Johann Gottfried Schadow’s “Princesses Luis and Freiderike” on the first floor and Louis Sussmann-Hellborn’s 1878 “Sleeping Beauty”- the intricate detail in the leaves and flowers will give you goosebumps!
The fall of the Berlin wall in 1989 set the tone for the formation of the Stasi museum. Born from anti-Stalinist civil rights activism in 1990, the Stasimuseum is located in House 1, previously the main building in the administrative headquarters of the East German Ministry of State Security, more commonly known as the Stasi. The Stasi museum documents, researches and preserves all things in relation to former German Democratic Republic (East Germany), acting as a memorial for the injustices of the GDR regime. It highlights the repression of Germany’s own people and the effect it had on the population. As fascinating as it is disturbing, the lessons offered here still hold true to the title of the museum’s first incarnation in 1990, a title borrowed from Spanish painter Francisco Goya: “the sleep of reason” – as Goya observed, “brings forth monsters”.
Don’t miss: The preserved office of Erich Mielke, who was once the Minister of State Security (head of the Stasi) and arguably the most powerful man in East Germany.
The contemporary art exhibited in the Hamburger Bahnhof museum documents art movements starting from the 1960s, using prominent figures work, such as Andy Warhol and Joseph Beuys, as examples. Part of the National Gallery, mediums range from drawing and painting to photomedia, often exploring technology’s effect on the nature of art. The exhibitions are regularly changed and curated to different themes. Formerly, the last stop on the Berlin-Hamburg Railway line (and a museum of transport and technology) the original use of the building is still evident in the architecture. Offering some interesting gallery spaces, due to their large size and high ceilings, the artworks are often spread out on a large scale allowing the observers to fully immerse themselves in the viewing experience.
Don’t miss: The special exhibitions (updated regularly) and the Joseph Beuys collection.
The Deutsches Historisches Museum takes you back in time to offer a thought-provoking insight into not only the German story but the country’s shared history with the rest of Europe. It portrays a variety of perspectives exposing visitors to the grand narratives that have competed to seize control of Germany’s past, present and future . This is most evident in the permanent exhibition, recounting 1500+ years from Germany’s past and covering a range of topics such as the history of language, political ideologies, World War I and the Nazi Regime. The Museum also has a library, picture archive and online object database; whether you are looking for something in particular or just want to sit back and read a book in silence.
Don’t miss: The warrior sculptures in the courtyard, the temporary exhibitions and the distinct spiral staircase at the rear of the building which can be seen through glass from the outside (designed by I.M Pei).
When visiting Berlin, it’s hard to ignore Germany’s role in Jewish history, and conversely, the Jewish role in German history. The sleek silver building by Polish-American architect Daniel Libeskind that houses part of the Jewish museum, identifiable by its unusual deconstructivist-style, stands out when compared to the older baroque style building it is connected to. The zigzagged roundabout shape of the Libeskind building (from an aerial perspective) is said to symbolize the strained story of that German-Jewish history. Pairing it with the older baroque style building constrasts the fractured sense of Jewish history, the rupture of the Holocaust (represented by the Libeskind building) with the civil base of the original building. But the design of the museum is not the only reason it attracts approximately 2,000 visitors per day. Prepared at a level that will entice both those versed in Jewish history and those curious for the first time, the permanent exhibition explores not only the Holocaust but also the German-Jewish relationship from the Middle Ages to the present. The museum is particularly engaging in its use of the case studies of significant individuals, photographic evidence and interactive stations.
Don’t miss: The Holocaust Tower and the Garden of Exile.
From the early 1930s to 1945 this site was the headquarters of the Gestapo and the SS, key instruments of repression in the Nazi regime. The museum that now occupies this plot of land is divided into three permanent exhibitions, the ‘Gestapo, SS and Reich Main Security Office’, ‘Berlin 1933-1945. Between propaganda and terror’ and ‘The historical site “Topography of Terror”. These permenant exhibitions are proof complete of a nation embracing its history, preferring to honestly confront the history of the terror institutions in Nazi German rather than shy away from an uncomfortable subject. Organised in chronologically order, from the beginnings of the Nazi security services to the trials and confrontations in German society (or sometimes lack of) that took place after WW2, mentally prepare yourself to spend a few hours here reading through the dark and disturbing aspects of the Nazi regime.
Dont miss: The remaining parts of the Berlin Wall stood alongside the exhibit
Who would have thought such a beautiful building could play such a dark role in history. The Haus der Wannsee Konferenz museum is pivotal in portraying the events that led up to the Holocaust, acting as a memorial for the Nazi persecution of European Jewry. In 1942, senior government officials and SS leaders were invited to discuss the problem of the ‘Jewish question’, pledging their cooperation in the planned deportation and murder of millions of Jews. Despite the manor being quite small, the permanent exhibition is packed full of information that chronologically documents the events that led to the Holocaust. Pairing a visit here with a visit to a concentration camp such as Sachsenhausen, north of Berlin, is highly recommended.
Don’t miss: The room where the meeting occurred, photographs of the people involved and the minutes.
The DDR museum differs to other Berlin museums as it allows you to fully immerse yourself in life during the Cold War, looking past common banalities and employing all of your senses with a hands on approach (the slogan of the museum is literally “History to touch”). Highlights include an authentic kitchen in a GDR home typical for the period, a room that emulates the secret police interrogation process and a virtual tour of the area in a Trabi (a type of car made from 1957-1990 by an East German company). Other key information points include facts about the Stasi and the Wall.
Don’t miss: the East German kitchen and living room, 1:1 scale, open for exploration
Haus am Checkpoint Charlie (now known as the Mauer Museum)
Checkpoint Charlie was an official crossing point between West and East Berlin during the Cold War and the site, from 1962, of one of Berlin’s most famous museums. Interestingly, the Haus am Checkpoint Charlie was formed right after the Wall went up in a two-room apartment, as a exhibition aimed at drawing attention to human rights and the oppressive actions of the East German state. Now it has expanded in size and documents many of the successful techniques used to escape from East Berlin. Attempts to cross the Wall could actually be viewed from the apartment – through a small window in the northern side of the building. Checkpoint Charlie was a flashpoint for conflict between the East and West and the site of numerous Cold War protests. In October 1961, the United States and the Soviet forces engaged in a stand off, their tanks staring each other down for 16 hours, only metres from where the museum now stands.
Don’t miss: The Charta 77 typewriter, the death mask of Andrei Sacharov and Mahatma Ghandi’s diary and sandals.
After having been badly damaged during World War II and laying idle for many years, initiative was taken in the 1980s to transform this damaged shell of a building into the interesting modern museum that it is today – replicating much of the original interior. Its Neoclassical architecture is fitting for its location on Museum Island. Historic not only in the collection stored here but also in the construction of the building – the use of iron in the museum’s construction was one of the first prime examples of the positive impact of industrialization in the 1800s – a steam engine was even used. Inside the Neues Museum, you will find an Egyptian Museum, a Papyrus collection, the museum of Pre- and Early history and Classical Antiquities.
Don’t miss: The iconic bust of the Egyptian queen Nefertiti.
Matt (right) guiding the BBC documentary team of Great Continental Railway Journeys – Berlin Experiences
***DISCLAIMER*** For the record, I should state that I have worked as a guide offering private tours in Berlin for more than a decade. In the process, I’ve met thousands of wonderful people and worked alongside the best tour guides in the city. I’d like to say I’ve accumulated enough experience to have some useful insight into the subject. It is my intention to remain helpfully impartial in my observations and recommendations. If you want to hear about how to get the best experience out of a guided tour of Berlin, then read on. – Matt ***DISCLAIMER OVER***
Tour groups are a fundamental part of the scenery in Berlin.
Wandering the city’s historic central district of Mitte, it is hard not to notice the numerous large groups of tourists being spirited through the streets by various colourful characters.
Look closer and you may see smaller, more intimate groups, engaged in lively discussion.
Tourism is booming in Berlin, with the city registering more than 30 million overnight stays in 2016, making it the third most popular destination in Europe – behind only London and Paris.
As famed for its hedonism as for its weighty history, it is easy to see why the German capital draws the crowds.
Once the nerve-centre of Hitler’s Third Reich and later the frontline of the ideological battle that raged during the Cold War between East and West, Berlin stands as THE city of the 20th century.
Following its re-unification in 1990, it has become emblematic of the new, re-energised, Modern Germany – dynamic, introspective & pulsing with change.
Berlin’s preeminent ambassadors are the hundreds of professional tour guides who work throughout the year to introduce visitors to the major and minor milestones marking the city’s existence – the things that remain hidden in plain sight and the places off-the-beaten-track.
Taking a guided tour of Berlin is rightly considered a must when visiting the city.
In the right company, you will find yourself experiencing things that will define your visit entirely – and leave you heading home with souvenirs, both material and intellectual, worth treasuring forever.
Why Tour with a Guide?
Why Tour With A Guide? – Berlin Experiences
Scratch the surface in Berlin and you’ll find that what is immediately visible to all is just the start of the adventure.
If you’re looking to dig deeper, see more and learn more, enlisting the services of a professional guide will go a long way towards satisfying your curiosity. And just perhaps, help you scratch that itch you never knew you had.
Whether your interest is in an introductory sightseeing tour, a more in-depth exploration of a particular chapter in the city’s rich history, or diving into Berlin’s cultural offerings – a professional guide will have the experience, knowledge, and contacts to make things happen that would otherwise be impossible.
Travelling somewhere new is one of the most inspiring and thrilling things you can do, but as any seasoned traveller will tell you, a first time visit to a city inherently comes with its own time-wasting frustrations and annoyances.
What is the easiest way to get around? How does the public transportation work? Am I safe to walk about at night? Are there any local customs that I should be aware of? If I have a niche interest in something particular, how do I tap into it? And most importantly, how can I make the best use of my time?
A guide will be able to help with all of these questions. But above and beyond providing necessary assistance, a truly professional tour guide will make your experience memorable, for all the right reasons.
Professional Guide vs Amateur Guide
Professional Guide vs Amateur Guide – Knowing The Difference – Berlin Experiences
Every country and city you visit will have its own spectrum of tour guide quality.
Knowing that there is a difference between the seasonal amateur workers, at best running a theatrical showpiece from a pre-established script, and those who find that guiding is part of their intellectual calling, is the first step in navigating your way to the best use of your time and money.
As with most cities, Berlin has a rich community of excellent professional guides, all with life experience in various different fields of interest – accomplished scholars, journalists, historians, political and social scientists, archaeologists, researchers and photographers.
The Berlin gamut ranges from erudite students eager to put their education to good use, all the way to enormously impressive streetside scholars, experts in their fields, offering their time and company – all to your advantage.
There is an old educational maxim that says that you don’t really understand something until you can teach it to someone else.
Expert guides are expert teachers.
This comes with experience and often years of dedication to the art.
With guiding at its highest form, you can expect intellectual stimulation from gifted educators who practice their profession with passion and pride.
A great guide is an invaluable asset. Welcoming you to the city, peeling back the layers, saving you time, and generally empowering you with a wealth of suggestions so that you can go on to enjoy your remaining independent time to the fullest.
A great guide is also someone who, by virtue of being a dedicated professional, will have committed time that you may not have, to doing research, collecting materials, and generally gaining access to all sorts of exciting things within the spectrum of their focus.
A great guide will also be able to change direction halfway through on the fly, seamlessly adjust schedules and reservations (within the limits of reality), and above all else, be captivating.
Change your mind about lunch? No problem, let’s go somewhere else.
Did another topic suddenly catch your attention? Fantastic, let’s change direction and dig in.
Feeling grumpy from the flight? Here’s a slightly inappropriate joke at exactly the right moment.
If it is the job of an amateur to drag you through the tourist traps, it is the job of the consumate professional to lead you far beyond them.
First showing you the highlights in the context of the whole, and then opening up secret doors in the backdrop of the stage – to show you another side of things entirely.
Private Tour vs Public Tour
Private Tour vs Public Tour – Which Is Best Suited For You – Berlin Experiences
Obviously, there is a time and a place for everything, but it’s important to keep your expectations on par with your means and choices.
A great public tour can be a terrific experience for those whose budget doesn’t permit hiring a private guide.
Bear in mind however, that even at its best, a public group is necessarily a compromise.
With a public tour, the guide is at the mercy of the group as a whole, and will be playing to an averaged assessment of what the group’s interests are within the framework of their topic for the day.
Sometimes this is fantastic, sometimes it shows its limitations.
A public tour (whether a paid tour or one of the ‘free tours’ we can discuss later) can often appear as a well-oiled stage show, the kind where the performer sometimes mingles with the crowd, sometimes appears in the balcony to surprise the audience.
A professional private guide is a different kind of animal – combining the professionalism and one-on-one attention of a skilled concierge with the ability to remain well-versed on all sorts of local political and cultural issues, while seamlessly blending history with present-day relevance.
With a great private guide, it’s entirely your day, your show, and the guide will be working hard exclusively for you to make sure you personallly get the most out of the experience.
You will also have the luxury of direct access to his or her expertise without the distraction of other strangers. This means that your experience is infinitely more flexible, and that you are almost guaranteed to end up getting more not just out of the tour itself, but also from the remainder of your entire trip.
Obviously, a private tour comes at a very different price point than the average public tour does.
However, if you factor in the time you save, the fact that you will be spared exposure to that somehow inevitable person who feels compelled to blurt out a million annoying comments on every public tour, and the access to special places and information that might end up being otherwise invisible, a private tour starts to look more attractive by the second.
Types of Tours
Although when approaching the subject of guided tours in Berlin, it is reasonable to expect that your starting point may be a general overview tour of the city (often called a Berlin Highlights tour). However, depending on the guide you approach to work with, and your level of interest, it is worth considering what in particular you are interested in exploring, what themes, chapters in German history, areas of the city etc…
As most professional guides also have academic backgrounds in certain fields, you can find that their specialties extend to the type of tours they offer in the city – such as Modern Architecture tours and, if their background is in the culinary arts – Gourmet Food Tours are become a more frequent sight.
Beyond the city limits, it is possible to escape Berlin for day visits to nearby Potsdam, where the former summer residences of the Prussian kings and German emperors are, to Leipzig or Dresden, or perhaps to the concentration camp memorials at Sachsenhausen and Ravensbruck.
Taking a private tour of Sachsenhausen or private tour of Potsdam, can be a great way to spend your time once having already acquainted yourself with Berlin’s main attractions. Combining all three of these options together (Berlin Highlights/Potsdam/Sachsenhausen) makes for an ideal three-day itinerary.
There are few times in life when quality does not come at a price.
What is exceptional about tour guiding is that it is an industry where your experience is defined by just one person – your guide.
Although with any restaurant you visit will likely have a chain of workers, all functioning buy glucophage 850 mg together to make the whole (from the waiter who takes your order, to the chef who cooks your food, the kitchen helper who prepares the basic ingredients, and the bartender who serves your drinks), with a tour you are at the mercy of only one person.
It is worth remembering that the cost of what you are purchasing is relevant to the experience you have with this person, rather than a product (such as a television or piece of furniture) that you buy.
With that, different guides may offer different prices based on their personal availability and professional quality.
Any per hourly rate you receive from any guide will generally be a good indication of how serious the guide or agency is and a reflection of how in demand they are.
At the prospect of sounding redundant, it is likely that if a guide you approach offers you a certain price that may seem high, it is likely that it is because they are worth it. It is the job of the amateur guide, who is not in demand due to their reputation and experience, to try to lowball the market.
However, it is reasonable to expect that prices vary based on the time of the year, you can expect to pay more in the summer season when guides are in demand, and don’t be surprised to receive a discount rate in the winter season when the number of tourists in town is lower.
When working directly with a private guide in Berlin you will often encounter the ‘sliding scale payment system’ – this means that you get to decide on the day what you would like to pay, based on a pre-defined suggested scale, and according to how much you value the experience.
This is also a way of trying to make private tours more accessible to a wider range of budgets.
Within reason, you can expect to pay between 40€ and 150€ per hour for a private guide in Berlin – depending on a number of factors:
Who the guide is
The time of year (whether on-season or off-season)
How in-demand the guide is
Whether you have any special requests for the tour (perhaps visiting something that is off-the-beaten track, and requires extra planning
Whether the tour requires transportation (this is not included in the above price)
How large your group is
Remember, the old saying: the poor man pays twice.
What may seem like a saving on price could actually be a sacrifice you are making on quality.
A staple of any frugal backpacker travelling Europe – free guided walking tours arrived on the scene in the early 2000s.
Talking about tours in Berlin without mentioning the ‘free tour concept’ would be missing out on a very important aspect of the tour guiding landscape.
As a way of making cities like Berlin accessible to foreign visitors and accommodating to the budgets of visitors – these tours have done wonders at increasing interest in the practice of taking walking tours.
There are some big names in the Free Tour business (like Sandeman’s New Europe) that you will find in most European cities, and smaller companies run by locals who have found the business model works for the kinds of clients they want to draw in and the turnover of guides.
One of the drawbacks of these tours is that, with cities like Berlin, there are many young people eager to find their place in the world and a way to support their time abroad – free tour guiding can be the equivalent of what picking grapes in the south of France once was – temporary and for short monetary gain.
That means that companies will sometimes rely on issuing scripts to their guides – which, while guaranteeing some semblance of consistency in their tours, also means that the experience can come off as being wholly constructed. And unlike with a professional private guide, who can easily detour into other realms, these tours may feel restricted to the well beaten path.
The good news is that there are a wealth of fantastic guides out there who have found their place with these companies – some are even in it for the long run. So, you can hit a winner sometimes.
The most important thing to remember about these tours is that despite the advertising hook – there is a catch. Although the tours may very well be free for guests to join, they are also free for the guides who run them.
The companies expect the guides to contribute towards advertising costs and general running costs and put a per person price on a tour (so for each person attending the guide is expected to pay a ‘kickback’ to the company for the pleasure of having those clients on a tour).
Some of these companies use free tours simply as promotion for their other tours – keeping things short and trying to upsell other paid tours – perhaps a longer version of the tour you have just done, with more sights and more information on Cold War history or Jewish Heritage.
However, because of the demand that the guide pay a ‘kickback’ to the company – you may well find that when the tour is over, there is the expectation that you will contribute, in the form of a friendly tip.
No doubt, when all is said and done, you will want to give the guide something.
Although there is a lot to be said for agreeing a set price beforehand and leaving the money aspect off the table – when both parties know where they stand from the beginning, there is much more room for the more important things.
No upselling and no desperate begging for tips.
As much as cultures around the world vary, it is rare to find someone who does not feel touched by a thank you that adds a little freedom to their life, and certainly a monetary token has far more power than mere words. So help us, we are human, and cash is king.
Bear in mind that tourism, as part of the service industry, has a long and rich tradition of people who provide outstanding, top class performance making careers out of gratuities, and your money is a vote for the kind of world you wish to live in.
Some companies will provide a specific tipping suggestion when booking a guide (often 10-15% of the price of the tour), when booking directly with a guide you can consider this to be at your discretion. Although it is always a nice gesture when stopping for lunch to pick up the tab when inviting the guide to join you.
When hiring transportation for your tour, it is customary to tip the driver (a suggested 5% of the full price), whether they are driving a bus or a smaller private vehicle.
This is again a notable difference between an amateur and a professional: the amateur will never let you forget about gratuities; a professional will always make you feel at home with the choice ultimately in your hands.
Private Tour Guides in Berlin
When I founded Berlin Experiences it was with one thing in mind: to be able to connect people looking for private tours in Berlin with the best guides in the business. I’ve personally led thousands of tours in and around the city and know what it is like to see people leave Berlin with more than they expected – and the value a fantastic guide can bring to any excursion.
Giving those guides the chance to put their talents to good use is one of the things I find most rewarding.
To the average visitor, the difference between a great guide and an exceptional guide can be hard to notice. What is impressive to someone who has just arrived in a city could be commonplace to anyone who has been there for a matter of days.
It is easy to judge a guide by what they put in their tours – but to professionally judge that guide it is important to also know what they have left out.
This is not something that the ordinary visitor can usually detect – and a good reason why I would suggest doing your research before you book any guide or tour.
Not all countries or cities insist that their guides are legally certified, it’s often helpful to look out for those who at least belong to an official tour guides association.
Unlike countries like Poland and Spain, there is no official license required for guides in Germany, suprising considering the weight of the country’s history.
You will, however, often find that guides in German cities, such as Berlin, are part of a local tour guides association (Verein).
This means they will be part of a community of guides who share information about their city, or country, amongst themselves on a regular basis, and be more aware of the minute details that first-time visitors will easily miss.
The Bündnis Berliner Stadtführer association, of which I am proud to say I am a member, provides a list of peer-reviewed guides in Berlin, alongwith the tours they offer and the different languages they guide in.
Founded by a former British naval intelligence officer, Terry Brewer, this company has been offering tours of the city since the 1990s and is famous for providing the longest single day history tour in Berlin (at a minimum of six hours).
The original Berlin public tour company, praised by American author Rick Steves as one of the best in the city. Setting a professional standard for English language public tours in Berlin that is hard to beat.
In-depth sightseeing tours of Berlin’s major landmarks with commentary from some of the most articulate academic guides in the city. Their Berlin Today tour, looking at the developments in the city post-reunification is a particularly unique experience.
Thanks for reading this far! I hope at least some of this was useful to those of you looking to hire a guide, whether in Berlin or anywhere else in the world.
If you have any comments or questions, feel free to get in touch.
The essential guide to private tours in Berlin March 3rd, 2017berlinexperiences.com
How absurd that of all the stunning buildings in Berlin – the triumphant Prussian Brandenburg Gate, the magnificent UNESCO-listed Museum Island – that the one landmark that has come to be synonymous with the name of the city is built of simple reinforced concrete. A monument to the ideological conflict of the Cold War that defined much of the 20th century. The Berlin Wall.
Constructed at a time when the world seemed to be teetering on the brink of nuclear annihilation, the Berlin Wall transformed the city overnight. As the East German government took desperate measures to keep their own population from fleeing to the Western sectors of divided Berlin, a concrete barrier over 150 km long was constructed around that very capitalist island of the West. Creating something of a paradoxical prison. Ironically where the only people who were free were the prisoners encircled.
Free to leave. Free, eventually, to visit the East. Free to rock. Free to roll. Free to vote for numerous different political parties, and free to cover the blank canvas of this monstrous concrete barrier in graffiti and slogans calling for its much overdue removal.
The images and graffiti tags daubed on this once daunting fortification have become emblematic of its existence. To tour the Berlin Wall now is to expect to be confronted with a chiselled mass of reinforced concrete and colourful murals. And in many places that is exactly what can still be found.
Alongside the Leaning Tower of Pisa, the Great Wall of China, Tower Bridge in London – the Berlin Wall now stands as a listed monument of historical significance. To tour Berlin without seeing, and touching, the Wall would be a journey incomplete.
Although many pieces have been transported across the world to be exhibited – in London outside the Imperial War Museum, at Fulton University where Winston Churchill gave his famous ‘Iron Curtain’ speech – there still remains much to be seen in the city. If you know where to look.
We’ve compiled ten reason why you should tour the Berlin Wall:
West German policemen face East German soldiers after a young girl escapes to the West, 1955
The ‘Sixities’ were dangerous and unpredictable days. The two superpowers of the United States and the Soviet Union were engaged in confrontation, using both convential military and unconventional psychological means, across the globe – in as far flung places as the Congo, Cuba and, of course Berlin. The period following the defeat of Nazi Germany in 1945, now known as the Cold War, was a period of proxy wars. Representative engagements fought between these two superpowers, on foreign soil, as a battle of ideologies was being waged.
Berlin sat directly on the fault line between East and West. Divided amongst the victorious powers in 1945, shared between the British, the French, the US and Soviet forces. The city became an ideological frontier. A measure of meaning. The point where two opposing worldviews collided – that of the capitalist West and the Marxist-Leninist East.
Faced with the mass exodus of population that had taken place between 1949 and 1961, whereby nearly 3 million East German citizens fled to the Western sectors, the government of the German Democractic Republic first sought to secure its borders by establishing a military frontier with West Germany. Then came the Wall.
Or the “Anti-Fascist Protection Rampant” as it was officially known.
As West Berlin, the island of capitalism inside East Germany, served as a point of exit for fleeing East Germans, specifically between 1952 and 1961, the East German government decided to finally cut off access to the Western sectors of the city by surrounding West Berlin with an inpenetrable barrier.
Not to be deceived by the name, the Berlin Wall grew to be more than just a wall, it was a series of obstacles sandwiched between two walls. The inner and outer walls, with a ‘death strip’ or ‘kill zone’ in-between.
It stood as a symbol of all that was wrong with the Soviet system. A system that had to be imposed by force and maintained by fear. A system that denied the citizens of the state the ability to leave the country, and thus denied them the choice to remain.
Until that fateful night in November 1989, when the whole house of cards came tumbling down. Taking the wall and all that it stood for with it.
The Great Escapes (& The Tragic Deaths)
East German Border Guards carry the body of Peter Fechter – Victim of the Berlin Wall
If you choose to trace the path of the Berlin Wall now, as it snaked around West Berlin, you will be confronted with a plethora of commemorative plaques and ‘places of memory’ recording the actions of the people who died whilst trying to escape from East to West and the many more who succeeded in fleeing.
Between 1961 and 1989, more than 5,000 people managed to escape to West Berlin, despite the Berlin Wall.
Any method you can think of, it’s likely that someone tried to escape using it, and perhaps succeeded. Hot air balloons, tunnels, elaborate smuggling operations, disguises, explosives, speeding cars, trains, buses. The list goes on. The Museum Haus am Checkpoint Charlie has an extensive collection of items that people used to aid their escape, including a converted car and improvised diving equipment.
At the official Berlin Wall documentation centre (Gedenkstätte Berliner Mauer) on Bernauer Strasse, there is a memorial to the 139 known victims of the Berlin Wall – from Ida Siekmann, the first known victim, to Winfried Freudenberg, the last.
The deaths recorded here are sadly as tragic as the escapes are inspiring, Ida Siekmann’s being a foretelling of things to come. Living on the border with West Berlin, in an apartment on Bernauer Strasse, Siekmann was cut off from her sister when the first stage of the Berlin Wall was constructed in the early hours of 13th August 1961.
Her sister was living in the neighbouring district of Wedding, then part of the French sector. As Siekmann sought to jump from her apartment building into the Western sector, she hit the pavement below and died from the injuries she sustained in the fall. The first victim of the Berlin Wall, soon to be followed by Günther Litfin – the first person killed by the East German authorities trying to escape.
The Mauerweg – Tracing the path of the Berlin Wall
Clocking in at over 150km in length, the Berlin Wall was a lot longer than most people realise. In surrounding West Berlin, the East German authorities decided to clear room, where necessary, for the ‘death strip’ of the Wall. Destroying houses, slicing through cemeteries and disinterring bodies from graves, all to establish an exclusion zone the border guards could better maintain, to prevent any attemped escapes to the West.
The Mauerweg is the legacy of what once consisted of this death strip. Partly preserved for posterity, partly because of the way Berlin seems to embrace greenery and open spaces. This trail traces the course of the Berlin Wall as it encircled the former Western sectors of the city, combining the area that East German border troops once used to police and the patrol road used by West Berlin customs officials.
To tour the entire length is quite a task, although worth it for the scenery and the dozens of information boards explaining the historical significance of the area you’ll find along the way. Expect to see many Berliners out taking in the air, walking their dogs, and the more adventerous ones biking the Wall. The whole route can be covered either by foot or with a bicycle. Choosing the latter will take at least a day (for those with strong legs), although we recommend making a couple of days of it – there are restaurants and hotels to stop of at.
The route is fully signposted, you can start your Mauerweg tour by following the more than 40km of cobblestone (pictured above) trail plotted through the city.
SlowTravelBerlin authors Paul Sullivan and Paul Scraton released a great companion book to the Mauerweg for the 25th anniversary of the fall of the Wall. You can find more information on that HERE.
The Graffiti on the Wall
Graffiti on the Berlin Wall
The longest remaining piece of the Berlin Wall can be found next to the River Spree – on the Friedrichshain side of the water – what is now known as the East glucophage price Side Gallery. Often credited as the longest, largest, open-air gallery in the world, this 1.3km stretch is home to over 100 graffiti murals.
Featured in the 2003 movie Goodbye Lenin!, the East Side Gallery boasts many internationally famous works of wall art including a large section by French artist Thierry Noir, Dimitri Vrubel’s Brezhnev/Honecker kiss, and Birgit Kinder’s ‘Test the Best’, depicting an East German Trabant crashing through the Berlin Wall.
Although not the only example of the Wall being transformed into use as a canvas for graffiti murals, the East Side Gallery is the most famous painted section. The gallery is actually on a piece of the former Hinterlandmauer (on the eastern side of the death strip), which means that the artwork here was all added after the end of the Cold War period.
The Cherry Blossoms
Japanese Cherry Trees on the Berlin Wall Mauerweg
In November 1989, the first crossing point to open and allow East Berliners into the West of the city was at the Böse Brücke on Bornholmer Strasse. That first night around 20,000 people made the journey through the now defunct border control and into the French sector of the city.
If you visit the path of the Mauerweg as it runs underneath that bridge today, particularly in early spring, you’ll catch one of the most beautiful sights in the city – rows of blossoming Japanese cherry trees. A gift to Berlin in the 1990s from Japan, the story goes that during a television show in the country people were asked to donate money to buy these trees to celebrate German reunification. And what you can see now is a result of that generosity.
There are actually two locations along the Mauerweg you can find these trees, the other being at the Lichterfelde Süd station.
Timing is everything, as the blossoms usually only remain for around 10 days.
The Berlin Wall Rabbits
Rabbits in the Death Strip of the Berlin Wall
Like the Iron Curtain dividing East and West Germany, the death strip of the Berlin Wall became an ideal breeding ground for a certain kind of animal that thrived in these largely undisturbed open areas off-limits to the general population – bunny rabbits.
The Oscar-nominated documentary, Rabbit a la Berlin, a kind of Cold War version of ‘Watership Down’, tells the story of these little furballs, the years they inhabited the death strip zone of the Berlin Wall, and their tragic demise following the end of the Cold War.
Dubbed by critics as an allegorical study of a totalitarian system, the film explores what happened to the rabbits when their natural habitat was suddenly disturbed and dismantled, as they fled from the jubilant celebrations and were chased into the streets and bushes by oblivious Berliners, only to die of stress and hunger.
Remarkably, much like their fellow East Germans, many of the rabbits fled to the West of the city, and are now faced with dealing with life in a very different, post-communist, world. However, if you’re lucky you might still find some of them roaming the former death strip of the Wall.
You can find the documentary below (in German):
Pieces of the Berlin Wall in Arlington, Virginia
Tour Berlin for long enough and you’ll realise just how many shops there are selling pieces of the Berlin Wall. Understandably, a piece of this former concrete barrier has been THE souvenir of choice for the millions of tourists who flock to the German capital every year.
Sadly, many of the pieces on sale in the city are far from authentic. Telling which ones are can be near impossible, although there are some methods, to the expert eye.
The only reliable way to confirm the authenticity of a piece of the Wall is to ‘liberate’ it yourself from a remaining section, although be warned, removing any of the Berlin Wall is now a serious criminal offense.
In 2015, a football player for Hertha Berlin, Salomon Kalou, was threatened with a 10,000€ fine merely for posing with a hammer and chisel next to the Berlin Wall.
The Present Relevance
The Israeli West Bank Barrier
The undeniable reality of the Berlin Wall is that is worked. It served its purpose. In the months before its construction in 1961, thousands of East Germans fled to the West, with the complete encirclement of West Berlin the government managed to reduce that exodus to almost nothing, in comparison, for more than 28 years.
Thousands of East Germans managed to escape, more than 5,000 between 1961 and 1989, but nothing like the vast numbers who were migrating West before the Berlin Wall was completed.
In Northern Ireland, the ‘peace lines’ first introduced in 1969 to separate Catholic and Protestant areas still stand. Although government initiatives are in place to dismantle all of the barriers by 2023, residents remain uncertain as to whether the efforts to minimise inter-communal violence will be reversed with their removal.
The Israeli West Bank barrier has been condemned by both the International Court of Justice and the United Nations General Assembly as a violation of international law and attempt to annex parts of Palestinian territory under the guise of security. Supporters of the wall, arguing for its legitimacy, point to the significant reduction in suicide bombings and attacks on Israel originating from the West Bank.
These walls all differ in structure and purpose and the Berlin Wall bears the unique and lowly mark of its origin as a border constructed to keep the population from escaping. But like future proposed border re-enforcements, they all offer the same lesson, on their effectiveness and what extent governments will go to in order to secure these barriers.
It’s never been easier
The Berlin Wall Bernauer Strasse Memorial
Getting to Berlin has never been so easy. Trans-atlantic flights are cheaper than ever, budget airlines throughout Europe have meant that the city is accessible from many major capital cities for the price of a short taxi ride – courtesy of Ryanair, Easyjet and Norwegian etc.
To understand the history of the 20th century is to be faced with understanding the history of Germany, the country that played such a large role in those 100 years, and of those major events in 20th century European history, most either happened in Berlin or were undeniably linked to the city. To tour Berlin is to better understand why and how these events happened.
Divided Berlin played a central role in the Cold War period and no photo in a history book can do justice to seeing the Berlin Wall is all its concrete glory.
Because it might not be there forever
The East Side Gallery section of the Berlin Wall before renovation
Natural erosion, vandalism and creeping gentrification are the Berlin Wall’s greatest enemies now. The initial years following the collapse of the Soviet Union, and the Berlin Wall, as the hammer & sickle were replaced with the hammer & chisel, were a period of indecision for the German Federal government. Unaware of exactly how to preserve this Cold War relic and the form of dialogue necessary to engage with the subject.
It was not until 1998 that the Gedenkstätte Berliner Mauer on Bernauer Strasse finally opened as the official Berlin Wall museum. By that time the area was so run down that a replacement guard tower had to be brought in (bought on eBay) to replace the former tower and create a replica of the death strip.
The East Side Gallery, initially started as a private initiative to display art work on the former Wall, is now run in co-operation with the government. The old murals added in the 1990s were repainted in 2009, although some of the original artists decided against being involved in the project again or were unavailable. Despite efforts to maintain the Wall and gallery, visitors soon began defacing the stretch of concrete with names, graffiti and tags.
In 2006, a 400 metre long section of the Berlin Wall at the East Side Gallery was moved to allow access to the new 02 arena (now Mercedez Benz arena) and in March 2013 a substantial part of the Wall was demolished to make way for the construction of a new apartment block – despite protests and the bizarre appearance of singer David Hasselhof to show his support.
All leading to the strange situation where protests to preserve what was once protested against by East Germans have become a familiar sight in Berlin.
If you are interested in seeing the remaining pieces of the Berlin Wall in the city, or want a better understanding of the impact the Cold War had on Berlin. We offer private guided tours of Berlin, on subjects such as the Cold War period, the Third Reich, Jewish Heritage and also tours to nearby Sachsenhausen and the palaces and gardens of Potsdam.
For more information on our Cold War tours, click HERE.
Whilst at the controls of a Heinkel He-280 (pictured above) jet fighter being towed by another aircraft, Luftwaffe pilot Helmut Schenck realised he was unable to start his engines due to cold interference. Jettisoning his canopy, he activated his ejector seat and made history as the first person to use an ejector seat to successfully exit an aircraft in an emergency.
Schenck wasn’t the first to use this method of exiting his aircraft as such. Another Heinkel pilot had previously ejected successfully but under test conditions.
From the time of Schenck’s successful escape to the end of World War II three years later, approximately 60 Luftwaffe airmen ejected from their planes in combat situations.
The aircraft and the seat were developed by the Heinkel Aircraft Works as Nazi Germany continued to experiment with jet propulsion systems and the ejection seat mechanisms necessary for a pilot to escape a cockpit unharmed whilst travelling at these new speeds. “Bailing out” of an aircraft, as was the usual method in contemporary aircraft, became more problematic as pressure and speed issues became apparant with the introduction of jet propelled technology.
Sachsenhausen Camp Memorial
The Heinkel airplane factory in Oranienburg near Berlin was one of more than 100 sub-camps attached to Sachsenhausen concentration camp. In 1944 alone, between 6,000 and 8,000 prisoners worked on the He-177 bomber and the He-111. Despite it being officially reported that the prisoners were “working without fault”, some of these aircraft crashed unexpectedly, notably during the Stalingrad campaign. It is suspected that prisoners may have sabotaged them, leading the Luftwaffe to dub the He-177 bombers ‘flying lighters’, or ‘flaming coffins’.
The Sachsenhausen Concentration Camp was built in the summer of 1936 just north of Berlin and was one of the most notorious camps of the Nazi empire. It was also the administrative centre for all of the Nazi concentration camps as well as being a training centre for SS officers, who were often sent to oversee other facilities afterwards, and slave labour complex.
Sachsenhausen was also the site of one of the war’s largest currency counterfeiting operations. Inmates were forced to produce forged British and eventually American bank notes, as the Nazis aimed to undermine the economies of those countries.
You can still visit Sachsenhausen Concentration Camp, the site of a well-maintained memorial, just outside of Berlin.
If you are interested in arranging a private guided tour, visit our Sachsenhausen tour page.
Archetypal femme-fatale famous for her husky German accent, vocal opposition to Nazism, and popularising the duct-tape facelift, Berlin’s own Marlene Dietrich returns to the silver screen once more this Friday (9th December), for a night at the gorgeous Ehemaliges Stummfilmkino Delphi courtesy of the Berlin Film Society.
Ehemaliges Stummfilmkino Delphi
Directed by Billy Wilder, the 1948 romantic-comedy ‘A Foreign Affair’ tells the story of a US army captain in post-war Berlin, torn between a ex-Nazi cabaret singer (Dietrich) and the United States Congresswoman (Jean Arthur) tasked with investigating her.
The film was shot in and around Berlin, utilising what was left of the UFA film studios in Babelsberg, at that time within the Soviet Occupation Zone. Wilder made a number of trips to the former Nazi capital to assess the post-war situation on the ground, encountering Allied personell, and desperate residents struggling to reconstruct the ruined city. He would later tell the story of meeting a woman on the streets who was grateful the Allieds were planning of fixing the gas supply, saying: “I thought it was so she could have a hot meal, but she said it was so she could commit suicide.”
Whether the story holds any water or not, we will never know. Certainly Wilder knew that comedy can play an indispensible role in tragic times. His tombstone bears the words, “I’m a writer, but then nobody’s perfect.”
Silent movie great Charlie Chaplin, embraced the formula of combining tragedy and comedy with great success before even acquiring the professional capacity to speak. Reportedly stating, with a dollop of theatrical finality, that: “…if you can’t laugh in the face of tragedy, you’ll go insane.”
Both Wilder and Dietrich found their feet in the Berlin of the 1920s and the heyday of German silent cinema, Dietrich as a cabaret singer recruited by the director Josef von Sternberg to reprise her role on the screen for the movie Blue Angel, starring as a young temptress who seduces a school master. Wilder worked as a reporter and later screenwriter, getting his big break writing the screenplay for the 1931 film adaptation of Erich Kästner’s novel, Emil and the Detectives.
Billy Wilder on the set of Eins, Zwei, Drei
As the horrors of National Socialism engulfed the European continent, both Dietrich and Wilder would join the long list of German exiles, alongside Bertolt Brecht, Thomas Mann and Lion Feuchtwanger, seeking sanctuary on the west coast of the United States.
In 1933, Blue Angel, the movie that had made Dietrich famous, was banned in Nazi Germany. Wilder’s mother, grandmother and stepfather would all perish in the Holocaust.
A project like ‘A Foreign Affair’ so fresh after the end of World War Two, involving the German exile Dietrich and the Austrian-Jewish exile Wilder, was bound to attract attention, and court controversy in their native German speaking lands.
Dietrich had joined the Allied war effort, selling bonds and entertaining Allied troops in 1944 and ’45, following the advancing forces from Algeria to Germany alongside Generals Gavin and George S. Patton. Wilder would later remark that she spent more time at the front lines than commander of Allied forces Dwight Eisenhower.
Both Dietrich and Wilder had previously collaborated to establish a trust to help European Jews escape Nazism in the 1930s, and in 1937, the actresses entire salary for Knight Without Armor was put aside to help the refugees.
The first German actress to be nominated for an Academy Award, Dietrich had initially been contracted by Paramount Pictures on arriving in the United States as an alternative to the Swedish Greta Garbo, but soon established herself as a box office success in her own right. Producing another six movies with director Joseph von Sternberg and attracting attention for her on-screen and off-screen antics.
Despite being married for over fifty years, Dietrich’s list of extra-marital sexual conquests reads as a regular-who’s-who of Hollywood – from John Wayne to James Stewart and even John F. Kennedy – at a time when women were portrayed as ornamental playthings in popular culture, Dietrich lived unbashed and unashamed of her sexuality. Known for her androgynous role and open bisexuality, the same-sex kiss whilst dressed in a full tuxedo in the 1930 movie Morocco, directed by Josef von Sternberg, still stands as one of her recognisable moments in film, one that surprisingly made it past the censors.
Concerned about the reception she would receive in her native Germany, it was not until 1960 that Dietrich returned for an extended concert tour, in both West Germany and East, performing as she did for much of her post-war career as a singer and cabaret artist. Dietrich was received in parts of the West German press and public as a traitor to the nation.
Her performances attracted huge crowds, in some instances shouting “Mariene Go Home”, and two bomb threats, leading her to announce that “the Germans and I no longer speak the same language.”
Plaque at Marlene Dietrich’s Berlin Apartment
As the war in Europe came to an end in 1945, Dietrich had returned briefly to be united with her sister, Elisabeth, who operated a cinema in the city of Belsen often frequented by Nazi officers and officials who oversaw the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp. Marlene first sheltered her sister and husband from possible prosecution as Nazi collaboraters and later disowned them.
Like many of the German emigrees that left Europe in the 1930s, she struggled with her relationship to her native land and opposition to the crimes committed in its name.
As German resistance figher, Ruth Andreas-Friedrich would write in her diary in 1945: “I think, as so often: what an absurdity, for a German to pray for the enemies’ victory! A strange patriotism that can wish for nothing better than the conquering of one’s own country!”
Marlene Dietrich is buried in the Städischer Friedhof III in Berlin-Schoenberg, near the house she grew up in. A collection of her clothes and personal belongings, bought by the city of Berlin in 1993, makes up the core of the exhibition at the Filmmuseum Berlin.
Mired in controversy, Berlin’s International Airport remains unfinished, more than five years after its planned opening. An absurd saga complete with malpractice, staggering incompetence, bribery, whistleblowing and organisational myopia.
As construction continues some 18 kilometres south of Berlin’s city centre, and the losses mount (with at least €1m bleeding away per day on a project currently more than €2.5bn over its initial budget) – we’ve gathered this photo gallery from a recent behind the scenes private guided tour of Berlin’s most problematic building site – the fiasco Flughafen.
BER: Inside The Main Terminal Building
After nearly 15 years of planning, construction work for the Berlin Brandenburg Airport (BER) finally began on 5th September 2006. It was initially intended to replace both Schönefeld and Tegel airport to become the single central airport for the German capital. Although a recent decision to keep the former operational was made due to rising passenger numbers. Combining the current Schoenefeld Airport with the unfinished Berlin Brandenburg Airport should eventually create the third largest airport in Germany (behind Frankfurt and Munich) with the capacity for an annual passenger turnover of more than 29 million.
BER: Inside The Main Terminal Building
Germanwings, Air Berlin, easyJet and Ryanair are expected to become the leading carriers at the airport, that will bear the name of former West Berlin mayor and Nobel laureate, Willy Brandt.
BER: Lufthansa First Class
The main terminal building is as close to completion as it ever has been, with an agreeable mixture of wood panelling, glass and steel throughout the entrance, complemented by a deep crimson colour scheme and elements said to reflect regional style, from Prussian architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel’s work to Bauhaus design.
BER: Inside The Main Terminal Building
The project has been plagued by design flaws, bureaucratic disarray, conflicts with nearby residents and issues over flight plans since its inception. To make way for the new airport, two villages in the surrounding area were removed. The inhabitants of Diepensee, for instance, received compensation and were offered new homes in nearby Königs Wusterhausen.
BER: Inside The Main Terminal Building
The principal factor causing the delayed opening has been the fire protection and alarm system. Inspectors uncovered flaws in the wiring and implemention of a custom system designed by Siemens and Bosch. An ORAT (Operations Readiness and Airport Transfer) team brought in to test the system in 2011, generic glucophage before the first scheduled opening, found 55 miles of tangled wires, with high-voltage powerlines running alongside data cables and heating transfers.
In case of fire, the inspectors found the emergency ventilation system was just as likely to explode as it was to function, and the installed alarms had a peculiar tendency to register ghost readings, indicating fires in different parts of the buildings. The following year, the authorities overseeing the airport project proposed a temporary solution, to open the site and make it operational before a general overhaul could be completed: 800 low paid workers would patrol the airport with mobile phones and act as fire-spotters. The plan never came to fruition.
BER: Rows of Chairs
The original Schönefeld airport was opened in 1934, and used by the firm Henschel (later to become the sole manufacturer of Tiger I and Tiger II tanks in Nazi Germany) as part of an aircraft manufacturing plant. At the end of WW2, Soviet forces occupied the air strip and, in 1946, established the headquarters of the Soviet Air Forces in East Germany at Schönefeld.
As the civilian airport of the East German capital, it was the base of operations for Interflug. Russian airline Aeroflot also maintained a significant presence. When the new airport is complete, the air transport wing of the German Defence Ministry (Flugbereitschaft), will move to BER from its current base at Cologne-Bonn Airport.
In one of the strangest twists in the airport saga, in May 2016, it emerged that a whistleblower, who had alerted the media to major corruption within the project, had been poisoned with a “deadly substance”. Fortunately the worker survived, but after a three-month period of illness.
BER: Inside The Main Terminal Building
In November 2016, it was revealed that the construction companies involved in the airport project had been offered financial incentives to complete work on the buildings in time for the new scheduled opening in mid-2017. According to German newspaper Tagesspiegel, the potential bonuses could add up to around €10 million per company but will only be paid if the work is complete by July 2017.
As the days continue to get shorter and we hurtle towards the Winter Solstice (December 21st), its time to whip out that camera and own the night.
The hush of empty streets, the crisp cold air and the enchanting glow of electrical light framing the structures of the city. There is something inherently calming about photography at night.
One of the most striking opportunities for sans-sun shooting in Berlin lies close to Postdamer Platz, in the former Cold War West of the city – the Berliner Philharmonie.
Berliner Philharmonie Side Detail One
Designed by Hans Scharoun, the Berliner Philharmonie was completed in 1963 to replace the original venue, destroyed in 1944 during a British air raid. Comprised of two large concert halls (the smaller of the two added in the 1980s), the Philharmonie has a combined capacity of 3,620. It is located on Herbert-von-Karajan-Straße – named for the orchestra’s longest-serving principal conductor.
Berliner Philharmonie and Potsdamer Platz
The Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra owes much of its reputation to the man still measured by many as the greatest conductor in history, Wilhelm Furtwängler. . Furtwängler led the orchestra from 1923 until 1945, returning for two years in 1952. His career, however, is still plagued with the question of whether remaining in Germany during World War Two, although not an adherent of the Nazi regime, lent prestige to the Third Reich.
Berliner Philharmonie Side Detail Two
Founded in 1882, the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra initially performed under the name Frühere Bilsesche Kapelle (Formerly Bilse’s Band), a reference to the orchestra’s former conductor, Benjamin Bilse. The 54 musicians of the orchestra had ceremoniously broken away from Bilse after he announced his intention of taking the band to Warsaw for a concert – on a fourth-class train.
Berliner Philharmonie Side Detail Three
On 23rd August 1945, the chief conductor of the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra, Leo Borchard, was accidentally shot by American occupation forces at a military checkpoint. The German-Russian Borchard had been banned by the Nazi regime in 1935, only to be appointed as head of the Philharmonic Orchestra by Soviet Commander Nikolai Berzarin personally, in the spring of 1945. His death was marked with a performance of Mahler’s 6th Symphony.
Bah humbug! Tired of the repetitive rows of wooden huts selling identical festive junk reproducing like spores across the city? Grogged out but still in desperate need of some extra stocking stuffers? Still looking to indulge in the obligatory over-consumption and over-indulgence of the Christmas season?
This weekend Berlin plays host to a collection of ‘Alternative Christmas Markets’ that might be just what you are looking for. Whilst you’re still waiting for the snow.
Here are our top five picks!
1.Holy Shit Shopping (3rd December & 4th December)
One of those venues that looks significantly different when viewed by light of day, the Kraftwerk on Köpenickerstrasse (pictured above) will be familiar to most Berliners as home to the legendary Tresor techno club. But on the first weekend of December, the industrial chambers of this functioning electrical power station are transformed to host what Berlin does best, beyond techno, young up-and-coming artists and entrepreneurs showcashing their mix of fashion, jewellery, photography and designer products.
2.Japanese Christmas Market (3rd December & 4th December)
From kimonos to kawaii, sumo wrestling to sake, it’s hard to find much that has any relevance to Christmas here. But as far as themed Christmas markets go, this one is timed about right and has all the cookie cutter things you would expect to find at a ‘Japanese’ market, plus it gets extra points for originality. Oh, there are bonsai trees too and that odd stick-and-ball game, Kendama, which genuinely does make a pretty good stocking filler.
Like travelling back in time to a world where men wore shiny pieces of metal and held other pieces of metal to hit each other with, and there was blacksmithing and candle making. One for the kids, one for the adults. If you’re willing to hike all the way out to Karlshorst (it is on the way to Schönefeld airport, in case you want to pick up a sword for the flight home). We haven’t seen the ‘ancient-baking’ they advertise, but it sounds both tasty and like it could be some kind of torture method. Caveat emptor.
If dragging out the Dickensian costumes, Christmas pudding and English carol singing is your thing, thenthe St George’s Anglican Church in Charlottenburg is worth a look. Show up to the short 3 hour market on Saturday 3rd December and you’ll have chance to hum along to all your favourite Christmas dittys and maybe fight Ebenezer Scrooge for a mince pie or two.
Entrance free St. George’s Church (Charlottenburg) 4th December 2.30pm-6pm www.stgeorges.de
5.Berlin’s Eco Christmas Market (3rd December & 4th December)
Every advent weekend, one of the oldest streets in Berlin’s Mitte district will play host to the city’s award winning Eco Christmas market – complete with eco-Santa, dressed appropriately in green. Expect organic treats, fair trade cookies and home-made fare from local ingredients, as the stilt walkers, brass band and numerous Environmental organisations taking the opportunity to appeal to your sense of Christmas generosity fighting for space, and your attention.
Entrance free Sophienstraße (Mitte) 3rd December noon-8pm, 4th December 11am-7pm
Alternative Christmas Markets in Berlin January 20th, 2017berlinexperiences.com
In 1842, the 22-year-old Friedrich Engels travelled to tend to family business near Manchester, England. Sent by his father to protect the family investment in a cotton manufacturing firm in Salford, with the added paternal hope that exposing his son to the realities of business would rid him of his increasingly radical leanings.
Instead, Engels witnessed the misery and desperation that had arrived on the banks of the river Irk. As the steam engine and mechanised textile production had spread across Great Britain and continental Europe in the early 19th century, a new epoch of industrialisation had arrived. The dilapidation, unsanitary conditions, and personal estrangement threatening public health and gruelling labour, meagre pay, and long hours expected of workers proved hard to ignore.
The family business in Manchester, the offices of Ermen and Engels’ Victoria Mill
Born in 1820, in what was then the kingdom of Prussia, the future bearded firebrand was the son of a textile manufacturer and cotton plant owner. He would fail to finish school due to family hardships, instead taking a job in Bremen as an office clerk.
Later, Engels spent time in Berlin, serving for a year as a volunteer in the Prussian Army, as part of the Household Artillery Regiment, which gave him the chance to indulge in a personal interest – that of philosophy.
Whilst in Bremen, Engels read the work of G.F.W Hegel – which affected him greatly. In the Prussian capital, he began regularly attending lectures on philosophy at the University of Berlin and to associate with a group of Young Hegelians.
Writing to his sister, Marie, whilst stationed in Berlin in early 1842, Engels advised that the opera was not very good, however, the theatre was worthwhile, and overall the city was better than Bremen.
Young Friedrich Engels
Incensed by the poor living conditions and serfdom of factory workers in and around the city, Engels began writing newspaper articles, anonymously published in the Rheinisches Zeitung. Whilst travelling to England in 1842, he would stop in Paris to meet the rabble rousing acting-editor of this reactionary newspaper – one Karl Marx.
It is of lasting historical record that the initial meeting of the two minds left each unimpressed with the other.
Despite the frosty start to their relationship, the two would eventually foster a successful professional friendship as founders of the revolutionary, socio-economical ideology that has since come to be known as ‘Marxism’. Their work geared towards propagating a global understanding of the socio-economic problems which seemed to originate within human nature and organized societies.
Although the lesser regarded of the two Prussian journalists, without Friedrich Engels the works of Karl Marx would have been recognisably lacking.
John Hurt in Nineteen Eighty Four
The rallying cry in George’s Orwell’s dystopian classic Nineteen Eighty Four for instance, channeled through the desperate hand of Winston Smith, that “if there is hope, it lies with the proles” is a call to arms that anyone who has even skirted the periphery of Communist creed will be familiar with. The concept that the proletariat working class, united, will move forward as the foot soldiers of the revolution. So indispensable an idea to Marxist Communist thought, it is Engels who can claim responsibility for influencing Marx to embrace the concept.
Following his encounter with Marx in 1842, the two would meet again in Paris, two years later. By this time Engels had already published a series of articles on ‘The Condition of the Working Class in England’ that made a profound impact on Marx. He would adopt Engels’ idea that the working class would lead the revolution against the bourgeoisie as society advanced toward socialism, and incorporated this as part of his own philosophy.
It would be the first of many major influences Engels would have on Marx and how he would unmistakably shape the destiny of the two men.
Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels
The two moved to Belgium in 1845, remaining there for three years. Shortly after their arrival, they initiated contact with the communist underground and were essential in convincing the leadership to operate in the open as a political party. Following Engel’s pointed critique of the organisation’s purchase glucophage online poorly formed manifesto, both Marx and Engels were commissioned to write a pamphlet explaining the principles of communism. Published in 1848 this became The Manifesto of the Communist Party, better known as the Communist Manifesto.
Engels had served as the guiding hand in Marx’s involvement, and although the final draft was eventually penned exclusively by Marx, according to biographer Francis Wheen, the latter spent most of his time engaged in “ceaseless procrastination”.
Eventually, both Marx and Engels moved to London, England, transferring the headquarters of the Communist Party across the English Channel with them. Marx devoted himself to the task of organising working class revolutionary action and writing for the New York Tribune. He lived much of this time, with his family, in extreme poverty, supported by Engels, who derived much of his income for his family’s business.
When Louis Bonaparte seized power in France in 1851, carrying out a coup against the French government and making himself president for life, Marx responded by submitting a satirical essay to the New York Tribune entitled “The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte” – in reference to the date of the coup, according to the 1799 republican calendar of France – a characterisation borrowed from Engels.
Similarly, Marx’s permutation of Hegel’s notion that history is repeated twice, featured in the first paragraph of the essay as “once as tragedy and secondly as farce”, was Engel’s contribution.
Marx, Engels, Lenin, Stalin
Nevertheless, Engels, ever possessing a streak of modesty in regards to his contribution to the development of Marx’s political theories, was always prepared to defer to Marx’s dominant voice and character. He would remark on Marx’s death that, “just as Darwin discovered the law of evolution of organic nature, so Marx discovered the law of evolution of human history.”
More than 150 years have passed since the publication of the Communist Manifesto. The ideas promulgated within, and elaborated on, by the two authors until their deaths certainly left an indelible mark on the many years that followed.
What responsibility should Engels, and Marx for that matter, bear for the ‘great ravaged century’? For the crimes subsequently carried out in their names by the Stalins and Dzerzhinskys of the world?
Karl Marx Allee
The streets of Berlin provide some interesting answers to the question of liability and guilt. As the city fell under the control of the Nazi regime in 1933, an active campaign to rename the city avenues, squares and neighbourhoods was undertaken. The names of Hitler, Horst-Wessel and Göring adorning the landscape would pay homage to the political order.
With great diligence the de-Nazification of the city, East and West, post-war was extended to the systematic removal of these endorsements from the map.
Following the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 and the re-unification of Berlin, efforts to erase another controversial chapter from the streets of the city were met with more dissent. Walter Momper, the city’s Social Democratic leader, remarked on the zeal the opposing Christian Democratic Party were prepared to apply to the removal of DDR approved names that the party: “apparently feels the need to defeat Communism anew every day.”
Bersarinplatz, honouring the first Soviet commandant of occupied Berlin, remains unchanged. As does the monumental Karl Marx Allee, the so-called showcase street of East Berlin, complete with its Neo-Classicalist wedding cake architecture.
Engel’s name is still visible in Berlin in the Friedrich-Engels Gymnasium, a high school in the district of Reinickendorf and the Friedrich-Engels-Kaserne, a former Prussia barracks house, during the Cold War home to a special guard unit of the East German People’s Army.
The full audiobook version of The Communist Manifesto