The encirclement of Berlin by the forces of Stalin’s Red Army, on April 25th 1945, was not the first time that war arrived to the streets of the Nazi capital. Nor could it be said that the opening volleys of Soviet artillery hitting the city on April 20th were the start of Berlin’s physical ruin. The Battle of Berlin, in many ways, began much earlier. Capable of inflicting a measure of carnage unprecedented before the early 20th century, the air fleets of the British Royal Air Force and United States Army Air Force had been repeatedly pounding the city since 1940. Five years before the arrival of Soviet ground forces.
Gradually reducing the blackened heart of the Third Reich to smouldering rubble. With geography and technology more often than not limiting conflict to the frontiers of any belligerent state – never before in human history had the capital of an enemy power been subjected to so much; and from such a distance. Over the course of these five years, Berliners would endure more than 350 independent air raids.
Some, like those on November 22nd 1943 carried out by the British and February 3rd 1945 by the US forces – would remain etched into the minds of the city’s residents for their ferocity and randomness long after the final shots of the war had been fired. For as predictable as these raids would become in their regularity, they would remain distinctly inaccurate when measured by their precision and capability of hitting valuable targets. In almost all instances it would be the everyday residents and infrastructure of the city, as much as the munitions factories, government buildings, and military fortifications, that would bear the brunt of the Allied bombardment.
As relieved as Berliners must have been on April 20th 1945 to finally see the last of the Anglo-American raids, the end of one torturous method of destruction would only signal the passage to another. The thunderous arrival of Stalin’s Red Army had already been sounded earlier in the day with the start of the mass pulverisation of the city using long-range artillery. Ensuring that the fight for the largest city in the Reich, the nucleus of Hitler’s regime, would be as bloody and contested as possible. For as the Soviets knew, rubble could provide an impregnable defence.
The first British raid on Berlin took place in August 1940 – almost one year after the start of the Second World War with the invasion of Poland. Ninety five aircraft were dispatched to attack Tempelhof Airport and the Siemensstadt area of the city; of which eighty-one made it to Berlin- inflicting minor, but symbolic, damage on the city. A response to a German raid that had accidentally targeted London earlier in the month and would precipitate the ‘Blitz’ attacks at the late stage of the Battle of Britain. Until this point, attacks of cities had been largely restricted to military targets and against infrastructure such as ports and railways of direct military importance.
At the start of the Second World War, US President Franklin D. Roosevelt had implored on the European powers to restrict their air attacks to military targets, to minimise civilian targets. A warning that the German war machine had repeatedly chosen to ignore – targeting and terrorising civilian populations in cities across the continent. Following the Luftwaffe attack on Rotterdam in May 1940 – the Royal Air Force had begun to gradually abandon its policy of attacking targets of direct military significance in favour of ‘area bombing’ — large-scale bombing of German cities to destroy housing and civilian infrastructure. Increased raids on Germany at the hope of crippling the country and forcing a German surrender – and in the process increasing Allied casualties.
Berlin would be just one of the many German cities targeted from 1940 until 1945, as by the end of the war the Royal Air Force Bomber Command would have flown some 364,514 operational sorties, with 1,030,500 tons of bombs dropped and 8,325 aircraft lost in action. The death rate stood at 44.4% – with 55,573 airmen killed out of a total of 125,000 in service.
The first allied bomber to raid Berlin was a French Farman F.220 named Jules Verne that dropped eight bombs on the German capital on the night of June 7th 1940.
Around 2,800 of the Royal Airforce Airmen shot down over Berlin and the surrounding areas of eastern Germany would end up buried in the Commonwealth War Cemetery, now located in the Berlin district of Charlottenburg – a short walk from the Olympic Stadium. In total there are 3,595 Commonwealth burials of the Second World War in the cemetery, 397 of them remain unidentified.
Plain white grave steles made of English Portland sandstone, grouped together in a trapezoid shape, serve to commemorate the deceased. Listed as 2,676 British casualties, 527 Canadians, 223 Australians, 56 New Zealanders, 50 Indians, 31 South Africans, 5 Poles and 8 of unknown nationality.
Walking through the cemetery gates today, the visitor is greeted with a uniform layout typical of Commonwealth cemeteries – The complex follows a basic pattern established by the English parliament for military cemeteries since 1918, which prescribes two main monuments: a ‘stone of remembrance’ with the inscription “Their name liveth for evermore” and one based on the Celtic cross and with an embedded bronze crusader sword marked “Cross of Sacrifice”. These features are at the back of the cemetery, beyond the collection of graves.
As the main Commonwealth Cemetery in Berlin, established after the end of the Second World War, this location also serves as the final resting place for 265 men of the British Occupation Forces or their dependants, or of members of the Control Commission. Although the vast majority remain as casualties of one of the most controversial operations carried out by Allied forces during the war.
Much has been debated as to what success these raids and the tremendous loss of life that the RAF suffered – and inflicted – over the course of the war actually were. In attacking Berlin, Great Britain was undoubtedly sending a strong message in 1940, that as the only major power then fighting Nazi Germany, that it was capable of bombing the heart of the Nazi Reich, even though it lay so far behind the front lines. An important accomplishment to acknowledge at the time.
Through the mass attacks of the Battle of Berlin in 1943 to the later raids carried out by the USAAF, Berlin, though, was never overwhelmed or broken. RAF Bomber Command chief, Arthur Harris’ prediction that the bombing the of the Nazi capital would cost Germany the war never materialised. While there were temporary breakdowns in the supply of power and water, the administration in the city acted swiftly to limit lasting damage. And even though nearly every factory in the city was at some point hit, none of the large factories were completely destroyed. Fire fighting and reconstruction of these factories – often utilising the vast swathes of slave labour and concentration camp prisoners that the Nazis lorded over – had the highest priority.
In turning Berlin into a frontline city though, the attacks on Berlin did manage to distract vital resources and attention from the conflict elsewhere; every anti-aircraft gun or fighter aircraft kept back in the Nazi capital was one less that might serve elsewhere. The RAF attacks on Berlin have been, almost exclusively, deemed a failure in achieving their objective of forcing a German surrender by historians concerned with the subject. But for the 55,000 airmen and majority of those buried in the Commonwealth War Cemetery in Berlin who would not live to see the end of the war, their sacrifices would not prove to have been in vain, their contribution to the defeat of National Socialism lives on.
Walk Through The Brandenburg Gate | Explore The State Museums On Museum Island | Visit The TV Tower – Fernsehturm | Cross the Cold War Border At Checkpoint Charlie |
Visit The Site Of Adolf Hitler’s Führerbunker | Explore The Topography Of Terror | Visit The Reichstag Cupola At Night | Explore The Forum Fridericianum |
Ride The Fastest Elevator In Europe | Journey Into The Memorial To The Murdered Jews Of Europe | Step Inside The Neue Wache |
Explore The Former Jewish Quarter – Spandauer Vorstadt | Explore Bernauer Strasse – Visit The Berlin Wall | Visit The Soviet War Memorial In Treptower Park |
Walk Across The Bridge Of Spies
Enter The Palace Of Tears – The Tränenpalast | Step Inside The Olympic Stadium | Explore Erich Mielke’s Office At The Stasi Museum |
Walk Along Karl Marx Allee | Visit The Oldest Church In Berlin – The Nikolaikirche | Visit The Grave Of Frederick The Great | Walk Through The Ruins Of Anhalter Bahnhof |
Stand On The Platz Des Volksaufstandes | Visit The German Resistance Museum | Visit The Soviet War Memorial In The Tiergarten | See The Georg Elser Memorial On Wilhelmstrasse |
Step Inside The Kaiser Wilhelm Gedächtnis Kirche | Visit The Gleis 17 Memorial | Visit The Schloss Charlottenburg Mausoleum | Explore The Interbau – IBA 57 |
Visit Cecilienhof – The Site Of The Potsdam Conference
Visit The Sachsenhausen Concentration Camp Memorial | Visit The Socialist Cemetery – Zentralfriedhof Friedrichsfelde | Visit The Seelow Heights Memorial |
Explore The Allied Museum In Dahlem | Visit The Ravensbrück Concentration Camp Memorial | Visit The Commonwealth War Cemetery |
Visit The Site Of The German Surrender In 1945 – Karlshorst | Cross The Bösebrücke At Night | Visit The Brandenburg T4 Euthanasia Memorial