The Cold War-era ideological conflict between East and West, as it played out in the divided German capital, was largely not one of guns, tanks, missiles – and advanced weaponry. But more subtle forms of confrontation – clandestine espionage operations, symbolic public diplomacy, and various soft power techniques.
The proximity of these conflicting systems – the Free-Market-Capitalist West and State-Controlled-Socialist East – existing, as they did, cheek-by-jowl in Berlin, presented the opportunity to impress upon the world the values and ideas that each side held so dearly. But also supersede each other; through the undertaking of bold flagship projects and use of propaganda to express the supposed superiority of those values.
Nowhere more evident is the extent of this conflict now visible than in the architectural traces of this era still scattered across the city. At the end of the Second World War, with the German capital in a terrible state of ruin, both East and West would also seek to address one of the chief issues of post-war society – that of the lack of housing. And in their own ways, channel their values into the types of accommodation introduced.
In East Berlin, this would mean the construction of a monumental boulevard, named after the Soviet Generalissimo – Stalinallee.
On May 19th, 1945, the Soviet Administration in Berlin had established a magistrate to oversee the whole area of Greater Berlin. In his capacity as head of the building and housing department, architect Hans Scharoun (later responsible for construction of the West Berlin Philharmonic) would present his plans for the collective urban redevelopment of the entire city one year later, in the ruins of the Berlin City Palace. The concept was utopian, with social harmonisation through improved living standards; in opposition to the Industrial Revolution tenements that were to be found throughout Berlin up to this point, and based on continued cooperation between the Allied occupation powers.
As animosity between East and West increased, and the two German states were eventually established in 1949, Scharoun’s grand plan foundered. What would follow it, in the East, would be less comprehensive – far from seeking to completely re-order the entire city – but come to be more cost-efficient in its purpose. A specific project that would represent the social, political, and philosophical outlook of the East German state – a wide boulevard leading into the heart of the city, lined with grand structures, and designed in such a way as to impress upon the visitor the magnificence of the people and politics responsible.
Rather than import architects from the Soviet Union, the East German government would rely on a collection of homegrown names to lead this project and ensure a characteristic Socialist style. Chiefly amongst them the man who would be appointed head architect for all of East Berlin in 1953 and provide the plans for the city’s iconic TV Tower, Hermann Henselmann.
In 1961, a 4.80 meter high bronze statue of Joseph Stalin, that was introduced here ten years earlier, was torn down as the street was renamed Karl-Marx-Allee. A remnant of this statue can still be found in Cafe Sybille (near the Karl Marx book shop), on display inside - Stalin's ear.
Henselmann would contribute the first structure on the street, the Hochhaus an der Weberwiese – not only the first skyscraper constructed in East Berlin but also the first example of Socialist Classicism in the German Democratic Republic.
This building had been proposed earlier, as part of the overall combined reconstruction effort that Han Scharoun had composed in 1946, for the district of Friedrichshain. Scharoun’s aim to implement a model of New Objectivity, reminiscent of the design styles of the 1920s and 1930s, would be rejected by the East German state as decadent and elitist – instead Henselmann would be assigned the job of redesigning the structure and “returning to national traditions” by channeling the work of Neo-Classical architect, Karl Friedrich Schinkel, in a distinctly Soviet Socialist style. This would subsequently serve as the prototype for the entire aesthetic of East Berlin’s epic boulevard.
Monumental eight-storey structures, designed in what is colloquially known as ‘Wedding Cake style’, line this two kilometre street that stretches from the twin towers at Frankfurter Tor (reminiscent of the two churches on Berlin’s Gendarmenmarkt) to the square at Strausberger Platz. Many of the buildings are covered in ceramic tiles, some feature balconies, others Doric or Ionic columns, ornamental gables with architraves and friezes. The modern amenities available, such as indoor plumbing, central heating, and an intercom system meant that these ‘worker’s palaces’ would prove popular with East German citizens and were intended to represent the strength and engineering skills of the German Democratic Republic.
When construction began in 1952, government film crews were dispatched to cover the immense popular effort made by Berliners who would help clear rubble from the area in preparation for the project. Although not all citizens of the East were satisfied with the direction the government was taking.
Originally named Stalinallee in 1949, the street would be renamed in 1961 as part of the de-Stalinization process in the East – instead since called Karl-Marx-Allee. Following Stalin’s death in 1953, many East Germans had taken to the streets of the country to protest against increased work quotas and attempts by the government to accelerate the path towards socialist. The workers on Stalinallee chose to lay down their tools and march on the government headquarters, only to face Soviet tanks a day later on 17th June 1953.
While the image projected here during the Cold War era was one of a prosperous state that sought to provide for its citizens and offered spacious and appealing accommodation, the reality was often much different – for millions of other East Germans who lived in prefabricated Plattenbau or dilapidated pre-war housing. Beyond the cinemas (Kino and International), the restaurants (such as Cafe Moscow) that offered regional cuisine of the Socialist sister states, and the sparkling historicist facades of this impressive project. The military parades, the diplomatic routes that would pass along this street, and the sporting events held here, would only serve to further highlight the absurd reality.
The state and East German society was slowly crumbling, under the weight of its own ideological failings.
Walk Through The Brandenburg Gate | Explore The State Museums On Museum Island | Visit The TV Tower – Fernsehturm | Cross the Cold War Border At Checkpoint Charlie |
Visit The Site Of Adolf Hitler’s Führerbunker | Explore The Topography Of Terror | Visit The Reichstag Cupola At Night | Explore The Forum Fridericianum |
Ride The Fastest Elevator In Europe | Journey Into The Memorial To The Murdered Jews Of Europe | Step Inside The Neue Wache |
Explore The Former Jewish Quarter – Spandauer Vorstadt | Explore Bernauer Strasse – Visit The Berlin Wall | Visit The Soviet War Memorial In Treptower Park |
Walk Across The Bridge Of Spies
Enter The Palace Of Tears – The Tränenpalast | Step Inside The Olympic Stadium | Explore Erich Mielke’s Office At The Stasi Museum |
Walk Along Karl Marx Allee | Visit The Oldest Church In Berlin – The Nikolaikirche | Visit The Grave Of Frederick The Great | Walk Through The Ruins Of Anhalter Bahnhof |
Stand On The Platz Des Volksaufstandes | Visit The German Resistance Museum | Visit The Soviet War Memorial In The Tiergarten | See The Georg Elser Memorial On Wilhelmstrasse |
Step Inside The Kaiser Wilhelm Gedächtnis Kirche | Visit The Gleis 17 Memorial | Visit The Schloss Charlottenburg Mausoleum | Explore The Interbau – IBA 57 |
Visit Cecilienhof – The Site Of The Potsdam Conference
Visit The Sachsenhausen Concentration Camp Memorial | Visit The Socialist Cemetery – Zentralfriedhof Friedrichsfelde | Visit The Seelow Heights Memorial |
Explore The Allied Museum In Dahlem | Visit The Ravensbrück Concentration Camp Memorial | Visit The Commonwealth War Cemetery |
Visit The Site Of The German Surrender In 1945 – Karlshorst | Cross The Bösebrücke At Night | Visit The Brandenburg T4 Euthanasia Memorial